what is plumbing incompleteness?

1,455,857 | 0.39% | Phoenix, AZ

Across the United States, 1,455,857 people (or 463,649 households) lack complete plumbing. That is 0.39 percent of the population. If all of the people without complete plumbing congregated together, the population would be the size of Phoenix, Arizona.

The U.S. Census Bureau defines complete plumbing facilities as (1) piped hot and cold water, (2) a flush toilet, and (3) a bathtub or shower, all located within the housing unit and used only by occupants.

U.S. Census Bureau (ACS) 2016

U.S. Census Bureau (ACS) 2016

As of 2016, the majority of households without complete plumbing lacked all three amenities or just hot and cold running water – both 29 percent. A large proportion also lacked just a bathtub or shower – 15 percent. One widespread myth is that the majority of those with incomplete plumbing only lack a flush toilet but the data do not suggest that. Rather, the majority of the plumbing poor in America lack all three amenities.